Creative Commons License Image thumbnails on this page and the full-size images they link to are licensed under a Creative Commons License (Free for non-commercial use with attribution; Ask me about other uses).

Modular Origami — Spiky Balls / Stars and Stellated Polyhedra

Models folded and photographed by Michał Kosmulski. Modules designed by their respective authors.
Click on images to enlarge them. Links in image titles lead to pages with more information about each particular object.

Spiked octahedron - sonobe module

Spiked octahedron

Made from Sonobe module (12 modules).

Octahedron - Pyramid Vertex Module (PVM)

Spiked octahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's PVM (Pyramid Vertex Module) (14 modules: 8 vertex units and 6 connector units).

Octahedron - Pyramid Vertex Module (PVM), inverted asembly and sunken unit variant used

Octahedron

Made from the sunken variant of Michał Kosmulski's PVM (Pyramid Vertex Module), inverted unit assembly (14 modules: 8 sunken vertex units and 6 connector units).
[ 3D image ]

Spiked octahedron - Simple Edge Unit, Sonobe-like variant, rotated linking method

Spiked octahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Simple Edge Unit (SEU), Sonobe-like variant made of square paper (24 modules).

This model demonstrates the rotated-link connection method. It requires twice as many units as regular Sonobe or SEU assembly, but each colored patch on the finished model can be a different color whereas in other connection methods, each colored patch shares its color with another adjacent patch.

Spiked icosahedron - trimodule

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Nick Robinson's trimodule (30 modules).

Spiked icosahedron - sonobe unit

Spiked icosahedron

Made from a variant of Sonobe module (30 modules).

Spiked icosahedron - Simple Edge Unit, Sonobe-like variant, SEU linking method

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Simple Edge Unit (SEU), Sonobe-like variant made of square paper (30 modules).

This model demonstrates the SEU-link connection method: it is completely plain, without any decoration on the outside.

Spiked icosahedron - Simple Edge Unit, Sonobe-like variant, reversed SEU linking method

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Simple Edge Unit (SEU), Sonobe-like variant made of square paper (30 modules).

This model demonstrates the reversed-SEU linking method: a single crease is the unit's only visible decoration.

Spiked icosahedron - Simple Edge Unit, Sonobe-like variant, Sonobe linking method

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Simple Edge Unit (SEU), Sonobe-like variant made of square paper (30 modules).

This model demonstrates the Sonobe-link connection method: the model is decorated with a pattern similar to the one found on models made from classical Sonobe unit.

Spiked icosahedron - Sturdy Edge Module, face unit variant

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Sturdy Edge Module (StEM) used as a face unit (30 modules).

Spiked icosahedron - Moreno's unit

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Moreno's unit (30 modules).

Originally I designed this as my custom unit, but later found out that it had been published before under the name of Moreno's Unit.

Spiked dodecahedron - modified 60 degree module

Spiked dodecahedron

Made from a modified version of Francis Ow's 60 degree module (scroll down the linked page for original unit folding instructions) (30 modules).
[ 3D image ]

Five intersecting tetrahedra (FIT) - 60 degree module

Tom Hull's Five intersecting tetrahedra (FIT)

Moved to Tangles and Woven Polyhedra.

Cosmos ball

Cosmos ball

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's cosmos ball module (30 modules).

Spiked icosahedron - umbrella dodecahedron unit

Spiked icosahedron

Made from modified M. Mukhopadhyay's umbrella dodecahedron module (30 modules).

Greater stellated icosahedron (stellated dodecahedron) - super simple isosceles triangle module

Great stellated icosahedron (stellated dodecahedron)

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's super simple isosceles triangle module (module also attributed to Jeannine Mosely and Roberto Morassi) (30 modules).
[ 3D image (different coloring) ]

Lesser stellated icosahedron - super simple isosceles triangle module

Small stellated icosahedron

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's super simple isosceles triangle module (module also attributed to Jeannine Mosely and Roberto Morassi) (30 modules).

Spiked and finned icosahedron - trimodule

Spiked and finned icosahedron

Made from Nick Robinson's trimodule (60 modules).
This is similar to the previous model, but apart from the spikes on all faces, the icosahedron also has "fins" placed on its edges.

Spiked icosahedron - penultimate module

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Robert Neale's penultimate module (60 modules).

Spiked icosahedron - Sturdy Edge Module

Spiked icosahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Sturdy Edge Module (StEM) (60 modules).

The second picture shows the interior of the model against a strong backlight, displaying how the modules are connected in an X-ray view.

Spiked icosahedron - Sturdy Edge Module
Spiked pentakis dodecahedron - sonobe module

Spiked pentakis dodecahedron

Made from Sonobe module (60 modules).

There is one spike placed over two adjacent faces of the pentakisdodecahedron in this model. I haven't checked if the angles actually add up, so it might be that this model can only exist because of imprecise folding.

Spiked pentakis dodecahedron - Simple Edge Unit (Sonobe-like variant)

Spiked pentakis dodecahedron

Made from Michał Kosmulski's Simple Edge Unit (SEU), Sonobe-like variant made of square paper (60 modules).
Compare to the same solid made from another Sonobe variant (previous image on this page).
[ 3D image ]

Spiked icosidodecahedron - TSU module

Spiked icosidodecahedron

Made from Charles Esseltine's TSU module (60 modules).

Snub cube - Little Turtle module

Snub cube

Made from Tomoko Fuse's Little Turtle module (60 modules).

Spiked icosahedron - Building Block Unit (BBU)

Spiked icosahedron

The structure of this model is similar to spiked icosahedra made with variants of the Sonobe unit and other similar modules. However, in the case of BBU a three-unit assembly is needed in place of each individual Sonobe unit, increasing the total number of units needed from 30 to 90.

Made from Michał Kosmulski's BBU (Building Block Unit) (90 modules: 30 × D2, 30 × A2, 30 × A4).

Spiked fullerene (truncated icosahedron) - super simple isosceles triangle module

Spiked fullerene (truncated icosahedron)

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's super simple isosceles triangle module (module also attributed to Jeannine Mosely and Roberto Morassi) (90 modules).

Spiked dodecahedron with pyramids on pentagonal faces - super simple isosceles triangle module

Spiked dodecahedron with pyramids on pentagonal faces

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's super simple isosceles triangle module (module also attributed to Jeannine Mosely and Roberto Morassi) (90 modules).

Rhombicosidodecahedron - Little Turtle module

Rhombicosidodecahedron

Made from Tomoko Fuse's Little Turtle module (120 modules).

Spiked rhombicosidodecahedron - super simple isosceles triangle module

Spiked rhombicosidodecahedron

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's super simple isosceles triangle module (module also attributed to Jeannine Mosely and Roberto Morassi) (120 modules).

Spiked rhombicosidodecahedron with pyramids on pentagonal faces - super simple isosceles triangle module

Spiked rhombicosidodecahedron with pyramids on pentagonal faces

Made from M. Mukhopadhyay's super simple isosceles triangle module (module also attributed to Jeannine Mosely and Roberto Morassi) (180 modules).

Spiked snub dodecahedron with pyramids on pentagonal faces - modulo tornillo

Spiked snub dodecahedron with pyramids on pentagonal faces

Made from modulo tornillo (210 modules).

Ten serwis używa plików cookies. Możesz określić warunki przechowywania i dostępu do plików cookies lub całkowicie zablokować ich wykorzystywanie w ustawieniach Twojej przeglądarki. Pliki cookies są używane wyłącznie w celu zapamiętania stanu rozwinięcia elementów bocznego menu oraz niniejszego komunikatu.