Formatting documents with OpenOffice.org Writer macros
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Copyright © 2004 Michał Kosmulski.
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Formatting documents with OpenOffice.org Writer macros
Around the time OpenOffice.org 1.1 RC was released, I was migrating a small company from Corel WordPerfect to OpenOffice.org. OpenOffice.org by itself does not support reading or writing WordPerfect files, but a tool called wpd2sxw can convert WordPerfect files to OpenOffice.org format (SXW). After conversion with wpd2sxw, which was rather good but had problems with some formatting features, I applied macros to documents based on different templates to make more than 2,000 converted documents look very similar to original WordPerfect files they were generated from. This article presents some macro "building blocks" you can use to modify a document's formatting or to generate well-formatted documents from plain text files.
OpenOffice.org uses StarBasic as its macro language. I won't go into details of the language itself, but the examples given here should be easy to understand if you have some programming experience. You can find tutorials and general information regarding StarBasic macros, along with information on OpenOffice.org scripting, elsewhere on the Web.
You can edit and run macros in OpenOffice.org through the Macro dialog box (Tools->Macros->Macro...), which is more or less self-explanatory. For brevity, the macros listed in this article usually don't declare variables they use, so they won't work with
Option Explicit. Generally, they were designed for OpenOffice.org 1.1, but most also work in 1.0 and should work with different versions of StarOffice as well.
Changing page size
When I converted my WordPerfect documents, wpd2sxw failed to save the page size in the newly created OpenOffice.org files. Converted documents all defaulted to Letter, while A4 was used in the original files. This macro sets a document's default page size to A4 (210x297 mm):
Sub SetPageSizeA4(optional doc) oDoc = IIf(IsMissing(doc), ThisComponent, doc) oStyle = oDoc.StyleFamilies.getByName("PageStyles").getByName("Default") ' units of 1/1000 cm oStyle.Width = 21000 oStyle.Height = 29700 End Sub
Simple as it is, this example demonstrates the extensive use of styles in OpenOffice.org. Here, setting a page's property is accomplished by finding the corresponding style object and modifying that style's properties.
Changing page and paragraph margin size
WordPerfect handles margins in a slightly different way than OpenOffice.org does. In OpenOffice, margin sizes are a page property — paragraph indentation has to be used in order to have paragraphs with different spacing from the left page edge. In contrast, WordPerfect assigns margin sizes to paragraphs — there are no separate entities for page and paragraph margins. Thus, for example, the effect of having a paragraph start 4 centimeters from the left page edge can be represented in exactly one way in WordPerfect (margin = 4 cm for that paragraph), but in many ways in OpenOffice.org (e.g. 2 cm page margin + 2 cm paragraph margin or any other combination which sums up to 4 cm).
wpd2sxw chose to use both margin types for converted documents. Even though all paragraphs had exactly the same left margin sizes (4 cm), in converted documents page margins stayed at the default 2 cm while the other 2 cm were paragraph margins. Of course, I wanted to have the more natural 4 cm page margins and no additional paragraph margins. This macro gets paragraph margin sizes from the first paragraph on the page and makes paragraph margins equal zero while enlarging page margins to compensate for that.
An extra quirk is that wpd2sxw assumed that default page margins in WordPerfect and OpenOffice.org would be the same — which was not quite right. WordPerfect's default happened to be 2.5 cm while OpenOffice's default was 2 cm. I didn't bother to find out how to fix that in the general case; I just added an extra 0.5 cm to the result in order to get the same margin sizes in converted documents as in the original files (but I removed that code from the macro shown here).
Upper and lower margin sizes got lost in the conversion completely, so the best thing I could do was to set them to values based on left and right margin sizes.
Here's the code:
Sub FixMargins(optional doc) oDoc = IIf(IsMissing(doc), ThisComponent, doc) oText = oDoc.Text ' A view cursor object represents the caret visible on screen. ' In contrast, text cursors are objects used for manipulating text ranges. oCursor = oText.createTextCursor() ' read paragraph margin sizes lMarg = oCursor.ParaLeftMargin rMarg = oCursor.ParaRightMargin ' select all and set paragraph margin to 0 oCursor.gotoStart(false) oCursor.gotoEnd(true) oCursor.ParaLeftMargin = 0 oCursor.ParaRightMargin = 0 ' increase page margins to compensate for zeroing paragraph margins oStyle = oDoc.StyleFamilies.getByName("PageStyles").getByName("Default") oStyle.LeftMargin = oStyle.LeftMargin + lMarg oStyle.RightMargin = oStyle.RightMargin + rMarg ' all information about top and bottom margins was lost, so we just copy ' left and right margin sizes oStyle.TopMargin = oStyle.LeftMargin oStyle.BottomMargin = oStyle.RightMargin End Sub
Setting page headers and footers
Page headers didn't make it into converted documents, either (current versions of wpd2sxw are capable of converting them correctly, but older versions were not). The macro below adds a header with some text and a few fields (page number and total page count) to the page. Adding footers would be very similar.
This macro also shows how to set basic text attributes such as font name and size or the language for spell-checking and hyphenation.
Sub AddHeader(optional doc) oDoc = IIf(IsMissing(doc), ThisComponent, doc) ' turn on headers for default page style oStyle = oDoc.StyleFamilies.getByName("PageStyles").getByName("Default") oStyle.HeaderIsOn = True oStyle.HeaderIsShared = True oStyle.HeaderHeight = 500 ' 0.5 cm - header height oStyle.HeaderBodyDistance = 0 ' 0 cm - distance from page text area to header ' decrease the top margin by 0.5 cm (the header's height) oPageStyle = oDoc.StyleFamilies.getByName("PageStyles").getByName("Default") oPageStyle.TopMargin = oPageStyle.TopMargin - 500 ' Add some regular text. In OpenOffice.org 1.1, newly created headers have a centered ' tabstop at the center of header area and a right tab stop at the right margin. ' In OO 1.0, one would have to set tabstops in the macro, ' otherwise default tab stops of 1,25 cm would be used. Tab is Chr(09). oStyle.HeaderText.SetString("MyCompany header text - left" & Chr(09) _ & "centered text") ' add some fields oCursor = oStyle.HeaderText.createTextCursor() oCursor.GotoEnd(false) oStyle.HeaderText.insertString(oCursor, Chr(09) & "Page ", false) ' insert "page number" field oField = oDoc.createInstance("com.sun.star.text.TextField.PageNumber") oField.NumberingType = 4 ' magic constant: 4=Arabic numbers oField.SubType = 1 ' another magic constant (use current page number) oStyle.HeaderText.insertTextContent(oCursor, oField, False) ' more regular text oStyle.HeaderText.insertString(oCursor, " of ", false) ' insert "total pages" field oField = oDoc.createInstance("com.sun.star.text.TextField.PageCount") oField.NumberingType = 4 ' as above oStyle.HeaderText.insertTextContent(oCursor, oField, False) ' Now set some formatting (reuse cursor object) oCursor.gotoStart(false) oCursor.gotoEnd(true) oCursor.CharHeight = "6" ' font size oCursor.CharFontName = "Times New Roman" ' font name ' set text locale to "no locale" (empty locale object) in order to turn off ' any spell checking in the header Dim aLocale As New com.sun.star.lang.Locale ' Uncomment the lines below to use a specific locale, e.g. US English, instead ' aLocale.Language = "en" ' aLocale.Country = "US" oCursor.CharLocale = aLocale End Sub
Setting text alignment
While left, right, and central text alignment were translated correctly, justified paragraphs were converted to left-aligned text. Let's consider an imaginary document template that consists of a centered header and justified text below. Let's suppose the document header contains the company's name and address and its last line is the phone number. The macro should set only the document text's alignment to justified, while leaving the header as is. It should also be able to tell where the header ends even if the text contains an extra space or the phone number has been changed.
One solution is to use a regular expression to find the last line of document header (the one containing the phone number), then loop over all paragraphs below, setting paragraph alignment to justified:
Sub SetJustified(optional doc) oDoc = IIf(IsMissing(doc), ThisComponent, doc) ' Find the line with phone numbers (last line of header text) Descriptor = oDoc.createSearchDescriptor() Descriptor.SearchRegularExpression = true Descriptor.SearchString = "^(([tT]el|[Ff]ax)[0-9, .:;-()/+]*)+$" oCursor = oDoc.FindFirst(Descriptor) if isnull(oCursor) then exit sub ' not found Dim result as boolean result = true ' loop over all following paragraphs while result result = oCursor.gotoNextParagraph(false) ' Magic constant: 2 = justified oCursor.ParaAdjust = 2 wend End Sub
Setting tab stops
Setting non-standard tab stops is also easy. This macro creates a right tab stop (with leading dots) and makes it the only tab stop defined for the current paragraph.
Sub SetTabStops(optional doc) oDoc = IIf(IsMissing(doc), ThisComponent, doc) ' create a text cursor (used for manipulating text) at the position of ' view cursor (the one visible on screen) viewCursor = oDoc.currentController.getViewCursor() oCursor = oDoc.Text.createTextCursorByRange(viewCursor.getStart()) ' add tab stop Dim tabs as new com.sun.star.style.TabStop tabs.position = 25000 ' 25 cm from left - more than A4 page's width tabs.alignment = 2 ' magic constant: 2 = right tab tabs.FillChar = Asc(".") ' tab stops need to be put in an array - in this case it contains ' only one element oCursor.ParaTabStops = Array(tabs) End Sub
Adding horizontal lines
In order to add a horizontal line below a paragraph of text, one needs to set the paragraph's border style for the bottom border to a solid line. That's exactly what the macro below does to the current paragraph.
Sub AddLine(optional doc) oDoc = IIf(IsMissing(doc), ThisComponent, doc) ' create text cursor as in previous example viewCursor = oDoc.currentController.getViewCursor() oCursor = oDoc.Text.createTextCursorByRange(viewCursor.getStart()) ' create a line object Dim lHor as New com.sun.star.table.BorderLine lHor.OuterLineWidth = 35 lHor.LineDistance = 0 ' and assign it to the paragraph oCursor.BottomBorder = lHor oCursor.BottomBorderDistance = 0 oCursor.TopBorderDistance = 0 oCursor.LeftBorderDistance = 0 oCursor.RightBorderDistance = 0 End Sub
Modifying multiple documents
Of course, if we want to use macros for fixing documents broken by converting from another format, we must be able to apply a macro to many documents easily. The macro below reads a list of file names from a text file (which can be generated easily using
find) and runs a few macros on each of those files:
Sub ApplyMacroToFiles() Dim fileName as String fileName = "/home/user/file-list.txt" Dim iNum as integer Dim currentFile as String Dim oDoc as Object If FileExists(fileName) Then ON ERROR GOTO FileError iNum = FreeFile OPEN fileName for input as #iNum while not EOF(iNum) ' read in file name LINE INPUT #iNum, currentFile ' open document in OpenOffice Dim NoArgs() ' empty array oDoc = StarDesktop.loadComponentFromURL(ConvertToURL(currentFile), _ "_blank",0,NoArgs()) if not isnull(oDoc) then ' do something AddHeader(oDoc) SetJustified(oDoc) ' save and close oDoc.Store oDoc.Dispose end if Wend CLOSE #iNum FileError: If Err <> 0 Then Msgbox("Error processing " & currentFile, 64, "Error") exit sub End If Else Msgbox("File " & fileName & " does not exist.", 64, "Error") exit sub End If End Sub
Adding macros to OpenOffice menus
Using Tools->Configure... dialog box, you can add items that run macros to OpenOffice.org menus. The name of the menu item added is the name of the subroutine which is executed — which doesn't look very good and can be confusing. Fortunately, you can change menu item names to arbitrary text by editing XML configuration files.
The menu layout for Writer is stored in ~/OpenOffice.orgN.N.N/user/config/soffice.cfg/writermenubar.xml. After creating menu items for your macros using the Configure... dialog, find the corresponding menu items in the abovementioned file and change their
menu:label properties to more human-readable strings. All strings must use UTF-8 encoding. Note that this file should not be edited while OpenOffice.org is running — on exiting, OO will overwrite the modified menu layout with its previous version. Also, if you use the OpenOffice Quickstarter, you will need to close it and restart OpenOffice in order for changes in the XML file to take effect.
StarBasic macros saved the day by providing a way of automatically modifying multiple documents and fixing formatting lost during conversion of files from another format. Thanks to this, deficiencies in the converting utility didn't ruin the whole migration plan. If the migration took place today, there would be less need for correcting errors in formatting, thanks to the advancement of wpd2sxw. Of course, OpenOffice.org macros aren't limited to just dealing with text formatting. They are very helpful in customizing the office suite. Unfortunately, sometimes using macros is also necessary for adding functionality many other packages offer built-in (e.g. word-count statistics and binding characters to custom keys). Macros also allow automating often performed actions and are definitely worth your interest if you use OpenOffice.org a lot. Basics of this macro language are quite easy to learn and with all the resources and examples available on the Web, writing your own macros isn't very hard.